Deities of the Book of the Amduat

The Egyptian conception of the underworld had it divided into twelve hours or sections and each of these had a gate or portal through which the sun god must pass on his nightly journey.  Every hour, with the exception of the first, has a heading which describes the events that will occur in the hour and its usefulness.  In addition to this, a vertical short introduction supplies the name of the hour, the gateway, and the region of the underworld.  This serves as a division between the hours.  It is of interest that the Book of the Amduat is the first fully illustrated book developed by the Egyptians with the text making continual references to the illustrations.  Here it is the text and the illustrations that make up the whole. 

The following list is a compilation of the names of the Netherworld region and the name of the hour goddess at each of these portals in the Book of the Amduat.*

Division/ Hour













Name of the Region

Great City

Field of Wernes

Field of the Grain Gods & Water of Osaris

Cavern of the Life of Forms

Cavern of Sokar

Deep Water

Cavern of Osiris, City of the Mysterious Cave

City of God's Sarcophagi

City of Living Manifestations

City of Deep Water and Steep Banks

City of Corps-Counting

Cavern at the end of darkness, City of the Appearance of Birth

* As presented by A.  Piankoff, The Tomb of Ramesses VI, New York, 1954.


"The Twelve Goddesses of the Hours seen

in the First Hour of the Netherworld."

(Tomb of Amenhotep II)

Name of the Hour Goddess

Splitter of Heads of Re's Enemies

The Wise, Guardian of Her Lord

Slicer of Souls

Great of Power

She on Her Boat

Proficient Leader

Repeller of the Snake

Mistress of the Night


Beheader of Rebels

The Star, Repulser of Rebels

Beholder of the Beauty of Re